Alors on chante!

I am sure I am not the only languages teacher to have been asked by his students about songs and charts in the target country. I think that having songs in the classroom is a great way to get the students interested in our subject. There are different reasons for this.

First, if the tune is catchy enough and the students like it, they might listen to it again at home or even download the song and therefore do extra listening practice. They might also want to understand the lyrics or even sing along!

Secondly, music is a great tool to give our students a taste of the target culture. As discussed in this previous post (motivé(es)), the cultural dimension has a crucial impact on motivation. We all want to develop in our students the ‘integrative orientation’ that Gardner was talking about. To achieve this we want to introduce our students to singers that will possibly trigger their interest ad curiosity.

Notice: Even though I do not deny the power of made-up songs, I am not a massive fan of them as they don’t have the cultural dimension that authentic songs have.

This post is a non-exhaustive list of songs in French that can be used in the classroom, the Key Stage they would be more appropriate with and the overall topic of the song.

For KS3, the range of songs is more limited as the knowledge of the students is quite limited itself. However, it is crucial to use songs with them as they are our potential KS4 students and we want them, first to choose a language at KS4, and secondly to be as motivated as possible. It could be a good idea to keep up to date with the French charts and share them (once a month?) with these groups. Stromae , Maitre Gims or Sexion D’Assaut are good examples for this category. They are very popular at the moment in France and have a great potential to interest our students.

 

 

So here is the list:

Amadou et Mariam:

Sénegal Fastfood / Francophonie / KS3

Beaux Dimanches /Francophonie / KS3

Amadou et Mariam

Java

Pépètes / money / KS5

Java

Matmatah

L’Apologie / Health and drugs / KS4/5

Matmatah

Stromae

Te quiero / any Key stage, he is just too cool!

Alors on danse/ any Key stage

Tous les mêmes / Relationships/ KS4/5

Papaoutai / relationships / KS4/5

Quand c’est ? / health / KS4/5

Stromae

Tiken Jah Fakoly

Y’en a marre / social / KS5

Le pays va mal / social / KS5

Ouvrez les frontières / immigration / KS4/5

Africain à Paris / immigration / KS4/5

Tiken Jah Fakoly

Tryo

La Main Verte / Health and drugs / KS4/5

L’hymne de nos campagnes / local area / KS4/5

tryo[1]

Dorothée

La valise / Clothes / KS3

 

This is, as I mentioned earlier, a non-exhaustive list. I am sure we can all think about other songs that work well in the classroom. Feel free to comment to this post with any suggestions, as the purpose of this post is to give each other ideas on how we can improve our practice.

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Feedback: ‘closing the gap’ in MFL

There has been lots of great work going on in my school this year on feedback and how to ‘close the gap’ in our students’ learning effectively. Shaun Allison made feedback one of his ‘Big 5’ alongside challenge, explanation, modelling and questioning (http://classteaching.wordpress.com/). Andy Tharby came up with a great strategy for marking his students’ work in his blog (http://reflectingenglish.wordpress.com/) and shared it with the rest of the school during an INSET. Inspired by these two, we decided to change the way we mark our books in MFL. Here are the things we have used this year. Feel free to download these resources and if you have any suggestions on how to improve, let me know.
How?

First we decided to come up with a list of the common things we normally write in books. We divided them in 2 categories: positive comments and ways to improve. We gave codes to these common comments (a letter for the positive and # for the way to improve). This is how we came up with the KS4 and KS3 DIRT codes sheets.
Impact: Students are now more involved in the marking process. They have to read and write what was good about their work but also how to improve. In the past we had students reading the level or grade but ignoring the strategy to improve. It has also reduced the time spent marking the books. I think that my marking is now much more focused and useful for my students.

KS4 DIRT codes

DIRT:

On the first lesson after our marking, our students are given DIRT (Directed Improvement Reflection Time). During this time they change our codes into the actual comments, and then, most importantly, spend time improving their work. They do the task we gave them (#). The way to improve (#) is linked to a slide that we display during DIRT, where it explains in more detail what to do to improve their piece of work. Students then have to highlight the improvement they have made. The highlighting makes it obvious for me or anybody else looking at their books that they have effectively acted upon my feedback.

DIRT slide

Impact: Thanks to this we are now effectively ‘closing the gap’ in our students’ learning. Moreover it is clearly visible and measurable to see the impact our marking has had.DIRT4

QR codes:

After a while I realised that most students were sometimes struggling to do the DIRT task (‘add some past tense’ or ‘add some connectives’…). To improve this my wife and I (she is an MFL teacher too!) decided to set up another blog (http://supportinmfl.wordpress.com/) where we uploaded lots of help sheets about different aspects of language learning. We then linked all these help sheets to QR codes. I now stick a QR code next to my marking for the students to scan and use to help with the way to improve. The students are now increasingly using this website, they have started to use it to get some support when doing their homework.

DIRT+QR1

Impact: The QR codes have given the students a greater autonomy. They are now able to improve their work independently. It has also brought an element of ‘coolness’ to the feedback and DIRT process. They are all very excited to get their phones out and scanning it. For students whose phones don’t work, I keep a paper copy that they can use in my classroom. Students can also access the website at any time to use the help sheets.

 Controlled assessment tick sheet:

I wanted my students to always be able to refer to the assessment criteria and compare their work against it. Therefore I produced a tick sheet to use during the stage 2 of the controlled assessment, where, as they go along, students tick the things they have included so far in their speaking or writing assessment. Obviously these tick sheets had to be different for high achievers and average achievers. So I did one for A/A* students and another one for C students.

Tick sheet sp ATick sheet Sp C

Impact: These have been great to make the students aware of what an excellent piece of work normally contains. Most students have used it very frequently and are now much more confident with what to include in their work in their work. It has also been a good way to include some self-assessment.

As I mentioned at the beginning of this post, feel free to use these resources. I am more than happy to share. It has worked really well this year for me. Obviously you might think of ways in which we could improve this, do not hesitate to contact me (via blog or twitter) with any suggestions.

Motivé(es)

languages word cloud
‘There is no such thing as motivation.’ Hmm, probably not the best way to start a post about motivation in second language acquisition. What Zoltán Dörnyei in Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom, means by this is that we cannot exactly define what motivation is. It is an abstract concept that explains human’s behaviour. Motivation is actually made of lots of different motives, such as economical (raise in salary), enjoyment or even the old survival instinct. It is indeed hard to define motivation, yet we all know what a ‘motivated’ student looks like. The qualities that spring to mind would be enthusiastic, keen, and committed. Unfortunately, we also know what a student lacking motivation looks like. Lately I have been reflecting on my motivation to study languages. Why was I motivated to become a linguist? And how can I transmit my motivation to my current students?
Just a bit of background information. I am a French male teacher in my thirties teaching French and Spanish in an English secondary. I have done most of my education in France, except my PGCE. I speak French (obviously!), Spanish and English. French is my first language I have learnt English from the age of 11 in a French secondary school and went on to study it up to university (Degree). I have acquired Spanish much later when I met my wife, who is Mexican and went to live in Mexico for 8 months.

Simple-motivation-

As long as I can remember, I have always been interested in languages. English has always been my favourite subject at school. As I mentioned earlier, lately I have been reflecting about my motivation to study English and I realised that it has never been due to very inspiring language teachers. I can remember great, inspiring teachers, the kind I want to be like now. But none of them were languages teachers! So where does it come from then?

After thinking about it quite a lot, no sleepless nights but almost… I came up with two main influences for my motivation to learn a second language. First, an affectionate link with the language and then, an integrative orientation towards the language, the target culture and its community.

An affectionate link with the language:

My mum was a linguist too. She studied English in France up to university. She did not become a teacher but still used some of her English knowledge in her career. Unfortunately, my mum died when I was 7 years old. She did not try to bring me up bilingual. Nevertheless I can still remember her teaching me some words in English. In fact these are some of my only memories of her. I think this has had a massive effect on my later motivation to learn English. I went on to do the same degree as she had started; I went on to live in the UK for a while as she had done in her university years.

An integrative orientation:

I don’t think this affectionate link I have with English is the sole responsible for my motivation in learning English. Indeed my mum also studied German. I studied German too but, even though I got to a nice level (15/20 was my baccalaureate result for it!), I never really enjoyed it and dropped it as soon as I could. There was something else with English. Remember, I grew up in France. At that time, the 90s, when you turned on the radio you would hear Nirvana, Oasis, Blur, Radiohead, Rage Against the Machine and some other pop-rock bands. They all looked really cool and we all wanted to be like them. We wanted to understand what they were singing about. It all sounded very meaningful and deep! We were then very disappointed! Robert Gardner and fellow social psychologists called it the ‘integrative orientation.’ Gardner argues that language learners’ goals fall into two broad categories:

  • Integrative orientation, which reflects a positive disposition toward the L2 group and the desire to interact with and even become similar to valued members of that community.’
  • Instrumental orientation, where language learning is primarily associated with the potential pragmatic gains of L2 proficiency, such as getting a better job or a higher salary (or a good grade in my case for German).

These two orientations have become widely known and recognised in the second language acquisition world however, the work Gardner is most famous for is the concept of ‘integrative motive’.

integrative motive

In the classroom:

So what can we do to motivate our learners? How can we have 100% motivated and keen learners in our classrooms? From my experience we can see that the personal link with the language is never going to work for everybody. Some students might have something similar but it will be a minority. The ‘integrative orientation’ is definitely something that has a huge impact; however it is quite difficult to apply in the United Kingdom where all media (cinema, music or TV) are exclusively in English. For a vast majority of our students, we (the language teachers) are the closest these kids will ever get to the target culture! Zóltan Dörnyei in Motivational Strategies in the Classroom makes a list of 35 strategies to help with motivation in L2. Even though I have to say that all of them are extremely important, I have decided to focus on some of them and comment on them or share some experience.

Strategy 1:Demonstrate and talk about your own enthusiasm for the course material, and how it affects you personally.

Explain to your students why you are a linguist, how you became one, without getting too personal. Students will genuinely be very interested about your ‘story’. Explain how you use or have used your knowledge of languages in your life.

Strategy 2 and 3: ‘Develop a personal relationship with your students.’ And ‘ Create a pleasant and supportive atmosphere in the classroom.’

Your students must feel at ease in the learning environment. They must feel that they are safe in your classroom and with you. They must feel that you care about them.

Strategy 4: ‘Develop a collaborative relationship with the students’ parents.’

Keep parents informed about their children’s progress and also ask for support with homework for example. This year we have sent emails to parents when KS4 students were preparing for a controlled assessment. This has helped massively as parents knew that their children were supposed to be doing some revision.

Strategy 5: ‘Promote the learners’ language-related values by presenting peer role models.’

Having sixth formers helping with KS4 classes is a great one for example. I have taught a lesson recently in another school where they do this and the impact of this is amazing.

Strategy 6: ‘Raise the learners’ intrinsic interest in the L2 learning process.’

Make the encounter with the L2 a positive experience. Have a curriculum that will be relevant for your students.

Strategy 7: ‘Promote ‘integrative’ values by encouraging a positive and open-minded disposition towards the L2 and its speakers, and towards foreignness in general.’

I think that this one is crucial. We, language teachers, do not only teach a language. We also teach the culture that goes with the language. Students are always very curious about differences between cultures. We must make sure that our schemes of work contain the cultural dimension as well as the linguistic dimension. It might sound obvious but residential trips, penpal exchanges even day trips are one of the tools we have to expose our students to the target culture.

Strategy 8: ‘Promote the students’ awareness of the instrumental values associated with the knowledge of an L2.’

After a survey with my current Yr 10, I have found that more than half of the class had chosen GCSE French because it would bring more job opportunities. The impact this argument has is undeniable, it is therefore something that we need to make our students aware of.

Strategy 9: ‘ Increase the students’ expectancy of success in particular tasks and in learning in general’

Make sure they know exactly what success in the task involves.

Strategy 10: Make learning stimulating and enjoyable for the learner by increasing the attractiveness of the task’.

Make tasks challenging, make the content attractive by using exotic, humorous and technological elements.

Strategy 11:Provide learners with regular experiences of success.’

Make sure all tasks are accessible to all learners from all abilities. In my department listening tasks were sources of demotivation as they were found very challenging by the students. This year I introduced to the department a differentiation strategy to help with this problem. We give the students the choice whether or not they want to use the transcript of the listening task. This has helped with their confidence, students slowly realise that they can do listening tasks and even start enjoying them!

Strategy 12: ‘Help diminish language anxiety by removing or reducing the anxiety-provoking elements in the learning environment.’

Help learners accept the fact that they will make mistakes as part of the learning process.

Strategy 13: ‘Build your learners’ confidence in their learning abilities by teaching them various learner strategies.’

Metacognition is very important. We know lots of strategies to learn successfully, we are teachers, at some point in our lives (and hopefully still now) we have been successful learners. Therefore we must share not only our subject knowledge but anything that is going to facilitate our students’ learning.

Strategy 14:Promote effort attributions in your students.’

Encourage learners to explain their failures by the lack of effort and appropriate strategies applied rather than by their insufficient ability. Encourage your learners to have a growth mindset rather than a fixed mindset.

Strategy 15:Provide students with positive information feedback.’

Notice and react to any positive contributions from your students. Provide regular feedback about the progress your students are making and about the areas which they should particularly concentrate on.

motivational teaching practice

In conclusion, these strategies are only an idea of how we can have an impact on our students’ motivation to learn another language. I am sure that most of us are already doing some of these. However, personally, I feel that I sometimes become blinded by details that are probably irrelevant. ‘Make sure you always justify your opinions!’ or ‘Use another tense!’… I think that sometimes I forget the big picture; they are here to learn another language and its culture, not to achieve a level 5 or 6. We must try to instigate in them a passion for the target culture and its language.

Let them talk!

We are all aware of the importance of being exposed to the Target Language when learning a foreign language. Talking as a learner, I have learned English as a second language in school in France without much exposure to the TL. I have to admit that my pronunciation, intonation and accent are still very French even after more than a decade living in the UK. However I have acquired Spanish from a total immersion in Mexico, being completely surrounded by Spanish speakers and as a consequence my spoken Spanish is almost native like. This is just one of the consequences of being exposed to and using the TL when learning a language. As Stephen Krashen (University of Southern California) puts it:“Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language – natural communication – in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding.”

Krashen

Target language has always been a challenge for me. I have regularly felt that I was not using it often enough during my lessons. When talking to fellow MFL teachers very rarely have I heard someone being extremely proud about their use of the TL in their classroom. A few months ago I came across this document released by OFSTED (Ofsted | Subject professional development materials: Judging the use of the target language by teachers and students). I decided to grade myself honestly against these criteria. The outcome was shocking; I have to admit that my use of it was mainly between ‘Requires Improvement’ on a good day and ‘inadequate’ the rest of the time. The reason for this was that there was almost no element of spontaneous use of it by my students. OFSTED is putting a great emphasis on the teachers’ and students’ use of target language. Yet research shows that it is more than simply a question of ‘using’ the target language more; teachers using the TL does not necessarily result in learners using it. On the other hand, we can only expect learners to use the TL if we as teachers are using it. So, after identifying the area for improvement, I decided to act upon it. The following are just some ideas that I have thought about, got inspiration from when doing some research and tried in the classroom.talk

One of the first things I did was to tell the students what we were going to do and why. Therefore I explained to my students that I wanted to improve their use of French or Spanish. So I told them that we were all going to make an effort to use it as much as possible. This can seem very vague for a 12 or 13 year old. So I gave them concrete examples:

‘From now on, you will use ‘je pense que c’est…/Pienso que es…’ when giving any answer. ‘

It seems like a detail but this strategy has had a major impact in my classroom. I had to constantly remind them to start with but now that it is embedded, it gives the impression to anybody walking in my classroom that the main mean of communication in the classroom is the Target Language. It is now part of a classroom routine and students now use it even when I forget about it.

Secondly I decided to have a learning environment that would support the learners in their use of the TL. I thought about wall support and came up with this display. It is still work in progress (missing the heading) but we have started to use it.

dsiplay 2display 1

I decided to have three categories of words/expressions: Opinion, Request and Argue because they are, in my opinion, the three main reasons a student would speak in a classroom. The other reason for having these categories was to make it easier and quicker to use. If we want to achieve spontaneity the interactions have to be quick and the students have to demonstrate an ability to sustain a conversation at a reasonable speed. I also voluntarily kept the display to a minimum amount of words / expressions in order to make it as simple and clear to use as possible. I am at the moment in the embedding process with this display and I think that once it has become a routine for the students, I will then, add more words to it.

The last thing I have changed to improve the use of the TL in my classroom is, in my opinion, the one that is having the biggest impact. Unfortunately, I cannot take all the credits for it. While doing some research about how people achieve a ‘good’ or ‘outstanding’ use of target language in their classroom, I came across the Wildern School and the famous Grouptalk ‘an award winning project to encourage students of MFL to use target language in an authentic and spontaneous way’. After seeing this video , I felt that this was probably a bit too much for my students and that if we were going to make any move towards this, we were going to have to go step by step. Therefore I decided to adapt Grouptalk in order to suit my students’ needs better and came up with the idea of QuickTalk. The objectives were to improve the spontaneous use of target language, to provide the students with a variety of ways to express opinions and points of views that they could use in assessment situations and finally to develop cultural awareness of the target country.

qt for blog

The idea is to ask the students their opinions about cultural aspects of the target country. As Krashen mentions in the quotation from the beginning of this post, the ‘interaction’ has to be ‘meaningful’. We have to recognise that asking a 14 year old to tell us what he had for dinner last weekend is not the most meaningful and engaging conversation. The questions have been, for example; should we legalise all drugs? Or asking the students’ opinions about bullfighting… To support my students I came up with QuickTalk mats that they use whenever we are having a QuickTalk moment. On this mat they have a range of opinions / connectives / intensifiers / adjectives that they are able to apply in a range of situations. There is not so much the group dimension with QuickTalk, it is more aimed at a class discussion in the Target Language. Nevertheless it could easily become more of a group activity. It all depends on what the teacher wants to do with it.

I have started using this with my Yr10s this year and it has had a great impact on their spontaneous use of the language. It is also helping them hugely with the preparation of speaking controlled assessments. Most of my students tend to re-use the structures/ idioms from the QuickTalk mats in their controlled assessments. It has also the benefit of making them improvise answers in French or Spanish, which is a great skill to have in order to show initiative during a speaking assessment. QuickTalk has also helped the students who could not remember their scripts during the assessment. They have been able to recall some of the expressions from the QuickTalk mats. The feedback from my students has been really positive, some of my year 10 boys say:

‘I like the QuickTalk mats because they give you different options for sentence starters, so you can vary them and sound sophisticated.’

‘The QuickTalk mats are very useful because the sentence starters included are good as they can jog your memory when you’re stuck. Also, the connectives are useful as they allow us to vary our speaking or even our writing.’

keep calm

Finally, I think it is quite easy for us to forget that our students are learning to SPEAK a new language. We very often get distracted by lots of factors such as levels, grades, targets, checking progress… We need to take the time to speak more in the target language in the classroom (teacher and students). The quality and standard of the language produced will feel quite basic to start with but, as soon as it becomes a routine the quality, fluency and pronunciation will improve.

Desirable difficulties

dd5

I first heard about this very recently. Earlier on this week, I was talking to blogger and pedagogue, our very own Andy Tharby. Whilst discussing various topics, Andy introduced me to the concept of ‘interleaving’. I thought: ‘Wow, he sounds very clever!’ I wanted to know more in order to be in a position where I could sound clever too! So, right after lunch duty, I googled ‘interleaving’. I then read about ‘desirable difficulties’ and it’s been a Eureka moment since then!
1. What is a desirable difficulty?
(a) A situation which makes something harder to learn initially (harder to ‘encode’), but nevertheless makes it easier to recall and apply at a later time (easier to ‘retrieve’).dd1

(b) It is basically the idea of ‘No pain, no gain’. For example in cycling or running, doing hill repetitions once a week to gain muscle strength and cadence or leg speed even though your race is not necessarily a stage in the Alps or a mountain marathon.

2. How can we do it?
Dr. Robert Bjork, a cognitive psychologist (UCLA) has been conducting research on remembering, forgetting and desirable difficulties. Here are some of his suggestions for some successful desirable difficulties:
A. Spacing learning episodes apart rather than massing them together
B. Interleaving topics
C. Testing
D. Having learners generate target material
E. Making learning materials less clearly organised

3. In the MFL classroom
I have started to use some of these strategies this year (without even realising what they were, just because it made sense). Here are some examples of how I have used them and the outcomes and / or ideas on how to develop some of these suggestions in our curriculum.
a. Spacing:
Constantly revisiting a topic (eg: environment) or a grammatical point (the past tense). We all have told our students at some point in our careers: ‘Oh come on Yr10, you know this! You’ve seen it in Yr8!’. But actually, you have taught this particular topic (environment) in Yr8, your students at that time understood (encoded) the new vocabulary and any grammatical structure involved with this module very well. They all did really well at the assessment that was at the end of this module, and then have stored it somewhere in their memory. You are now expecting them (2 years later) to retrieve this particular vocabulary.

dd2

This year with the KS4 groups, I have focused a lot on vocabulary learning in order to tackle our weak area: the listening and reading exams. We decided to have weekly vocab tests that would be recorded on a tracking document and measured against the students MEGs. All these vocab tests were out of 30. Fairly basic stuff.
The only twist was that instead of doing these vocab tests in a purely massed manner (only the environment), I was mixing them with other topics. This was a way to keep the students always on their toes and revisiting vocabulary that we had seen a few weeks, months earlier.
This has worked extremely well this year, and I feel that I have never prepared a Yr11 group as well as this year. The results were not great to start with, but as we progressed through the year, both classes became better at it.
b. Interleaving
There is quite a lot of research on the effects of interleaving versus blocking. Basically, most of the time we tend to block the learning. (aaabbbccc vs abcabcabc)
Let’s take an example, in our current Spanish schemes of work, the Unit 4 from Mira 2 is ‘La comida’. This means that we are going to be talking and learning only about food for a whole long half-term. Once the students have successfully completed their assessment, we will consider this topic covered.
However, recent evidence suggests that it may be more beneficial to present different concepts or topics in an order that is shuffled and less predictable.
Last year, I decided to change the French schemes of work as they were dated and not very engaging. I went to a very successful MFL department in a very successful school to get some inspiration. Most of their schemes of work were about context and not topics. For example, they had some units about history or geography or even art.
We decided to try these topics this year. I have to recognise that I was very anxious about it, as we did not have the comfort of a text book or an active teach software to rely on. However I think that these more creative contexts (‘Dans la jungle’ and ‘L’art’) have been received really well by the students and have been beneficial on several levels. Following on from this I decided to write another unit of work based on the documentary ‘Maradona by Kusturica’ which involves different topics such as health, personal relationships, home environment and social issues.
These units were interleaved, we covered various topics within each of them. In the Art unit, we covered landscapes, colours, past tense and feelings and emotions. It resulted in an engaging unit and also enabled students to apply different topics to one written assessment.
I also think that the students were very positive about this unit as it was not too repetitive. Indeed the risk with a blocked scheme of work is to see one topic until the students get bored of it. As MFL teachers we are always aware about engagement, as in the back of our minds we always want to find any opportunities to hook the students to languages and therefore have greater numbers at KS4. I sincerely believe that interleaved schemes of work can help with the enjoyment and the engagement of our students.
c. Testing

dd3

Another very interesting fact is about testing. First, which of these patterns (above) of study do you think is more likely to be the best in the long-term learning?
Quite surprisingly, it is 4. Bjork’s idea is to make testing an entire part of our practice. He suggests we keep testing low-key and very frequent.
As I mentioned earlier, I have been vocab testing our KS4 groups (especially Yr11) a lot this year. All groups had their weekly vocab test. I think that the impact it has had on the students’ learning is huge. The results were quite negative to start with. It was a joke with the class to see how red the spread sheet was! But by January more and more green was appearing on it. By the end of the year the spreadsheet became exclusively green with the odd amber patch. I even think that my Yr11s secretly loved them!

D and e. learners generating target materials and making materials less clearly organised
I have not tried these two techniques but I can totally understand how they could benefit our classes.
For the first one, we want the learners to make the intellectual effort to understand a concept or learn some new vocabulary (‘encode’). If we just give them the new vocab, tell them ‘ pantalones are trousers in Spanish’, they have not had to make an effort to encode this information however if we give them this sort of vocab list:

dd4

This would give a ‘desirable difficulty’ in the students’ learning and therefore they would have to make an intellectual effort to ‘get it’. This effort would make the retrieving process easier.
The last suggestion is very similar. By making the learning materials less clear, the learners would have to make another effort to encode the new concept. These techniques would also build resilience in the learners.

dd6

To conclude, I think that to truly adopt these ‘desirable difficulties’ we need to abandon the idea of demonstrating progress every 20 minutes in our lessons. Is it realistic to expect progress every 20 minutes? If yes, are we teaching or is it more a performance? Bjork says that ‘the most fundamental goals of education are long-term goals. As teachers and educators, we want targeted knowledge and skills to be acquired in a way that makes them durable and flexible.’